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PowerPoint Lecture Notes: Technology Comparisons: Energy Return on Investment (coming October 2017)

Papers cited in lecture notes or used in their preparation:

The literature covering not only EROI, but environmental impact in general, is dominated by Elsevier Publishing. Their journals have traditionally maintained strict "Pay Walls" even for articles that are now many years old and/or of exceptional public importance.

With one exception (for Scientific American's seminal article) I have tried to respect Pay Walls by not caching articles when their websites demanded payment. (In researching this note set, I was able to sidestep Pay Walls via my university's paid subscriptions).

If, in the public interest, Elsevier or any other publisher wants to give me permission to add cached copies of their articles to this webpage, I would be delighted to do so (I can be reached via this website's Contact webpage) - John

International Subsidization of Energy

IMF 2015: How Large are Global Energy Subsidies, International Monetary Fund, 2015 (link / cached copy)

Seminal Discussion of "EROI"

The seminal research publication on EROI:

Murphy 2010: Year in review - EROI or Energy Return on (Energy) Invested, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1185, pp. 102–118, 2010 (link)

The article bringing EROI to public attention (plus follow-up article and discussion):

Inman 2013a: The True Cost of Fossil Fuels, Scientific American 2013 (link / cached copy)

Inman 2013b: Behind the Numbers on Energy Return on Investment, Scientific American 2013 (link / cached copy)

Hope 2013: Energy Return on Investment - Which Fuels Win? - Carbon Brief Org (link / cached copy)

Reviews / Technology Comparisons

Gagnon 2002: Life Cycle Assessment of Electricity Generation Options: the Status of Research in the Year 2001 - Energy Policy 30, 1267-1278, 2002 (link)

Gagnon 2008: Civilisation and Energy Payback, Energy Policy 36, 3317-22, 2008 (link)

Lund 2008: A Review of the Application of Life Cycle Analysis to Renewable Energy Systems, Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 28, 200-209, 2008 (link / cached copy)

King 2010: Energy Intensity Ratios as Net Energy Measures of United States Production and Expenditures, Environmental Res. Lett. 5, 2010 (link / cached copy)

Hall 2011: Special Issue: New Studies on EROI (Energy Return on Investment), Sustainability 3, 2011 (link / cached copy)

Gupta 2011: A Review of the Past and Current State of EROI Data, Sustainability 3, 1796-1809, 2011 (link / cached copy)

Raugei 2012: The Energy Return on Investment (EROI) of Photovoltaics: Methodology an Comparisons with Fossil fuel Cycles, Energy Policy 45, 575-582, 2012 (link)

Lambert 2013: EROI of Global Energy Resources, UK Department of International Development, 2013 (link / cached copy)

Weissbach 2013: Energy Intensities, EROIs (Energy Returned on Invested), and Energy Payback Times of Electricity Generating Power Plants, Energy 52, 210-21, 2013 (link)

Hall 2014: EROI of Different Fuels and the Implications for Society, Energy Policy 64, 141-152, 2014 (link)

Fossil Fuels

Spath 1999: Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production (link / cached copy)

Spath 2000: Life Cycle Assessment of Natrual Gas Combined-Cycle Power Generation System (link / cached copy)

Gielen 2003: Future Role of CO2 Capture in the Electricity Sector (link / cached copy)

King 2010: Energy Intensity Ratios as Net Energy Measures of United States Energy Production and Expenditures (link / cached copy)

Guildford 2011: A New Long Term Assessment of Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for U.S. Oil discovery and Production, Sustainability 3, 1866-1887, 2011 (link / cached copy)

Brandt 2011: Oil depletion and the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production: The Case of California, Sustainability 3, 1833-1854, 2011 (link / cached copy)

Raugei 2012: The Energy Return on Investment (EROI) of Photovoltaics: Methodology and Comparisons with Fossil fuel Cycles, Energy Policy 45, 575-582, 2012 (link)

Brandt 2013: The Energy Efficiency of Oil Sands Extraction: Energy return ratios from 1970 to 2010, Energy 55, 693-702, 2013 (link)

Biello 2013: The Opposite of Mining: Tar Sands Steam Extraction Lessens Footprint, but Environmental Costs Remain, Scientific American, Jan 2013 (link / cached copy)

Nuwer 2013: Oil Sands Mining Uses Up Almost as Much Energy as It Produces, Inside Climate News, Feb. 2013 (link / cached copy)

Hall 2014: EROI of Different Fuels and the Implications for Society, Energy Policy 64, 141-152, 2014 (link / cached copy)

Biofuels

Patzek 2004: Thermodynamics of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle, Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 23, 519-67 2004 (link / cached copy)

Pimentel 2005: Ethanol Production Using Corn, Switchgrass, and Wood; Biodiesel Production Using Soybean and Sunflower, Natural Resources Research 14, 64-76, 2005 (link / cached copy)

Farrell 2006: Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals, Science 311, 506-8, Jan 2006 (link / cached copy)

Hammerschlag 2006: Ethanol’s Energy Return on Investment: A Survey of the Literature 1990-Present, Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 1744-1750, 2006 (link / cached copy)

Peplow 2006: Biofuels Get a Mixed Review, Nature, Jan 2006 (link / cached copy)

Goldemberg 2007: Ethanol for a Sustainable Energy Future, Science 315, 806-10, Feb 2007 (link / cached copy)

Macedo 2008: Green House Gases Emissions in the Production and Use of Ethanol from Sugarcane in Brazil: The 2005/2006 averages and a prediction for 2020, Biomass & Bioenergy 32, 582-95, 2008 (link)

Goldemberg 2009: Are Biofuels a Feasible Option?, Energy Policy 37, 10-14, 2009 (link)

Pradham 2011: Energy Life-Cycle of Soybean Biodiesel Revisited, Transactions of the ASABE 54, 1031-39, 2011 (link / cached copy)

Michel 2012: The Nonsense of Biofuels, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 2516-18, 2012 (link / cached copy)

Nogueira 2013: The Rationality of Biofuels, Energy Policy 61, 595-98, 2013 (link)

Hall 2014: EROI of Different Fuels and the Implications for Society, Energy Policy 64, 141-152, 2014 (link / cached copy)

Tredici 2015: Energy Balance of Algal Biomass Production in a 1-ha ‘‘Green Wall Panel’’ Plant: How to produce algal biomass in a closed reactor achieving a high Net Energy Ratio, Applied Energy 154, 1103-1111, 2015 (link / cached copy)

Hydroelectric Power

IEA 2000: Hydropower and the Environment: Present Context and Guidelines for Future Action (link / cached copy)

Gagnon 2002: Life Cycle Assessment of Electricity Generation Options: the Status of Research in the Year 2001 - Energy Policy 30, 1267-1278, 2002 (link)

Gagnon 2008: Civilisation and Energy Payback, Energy Policy 36, 3317-22, 2008 (link)

Kumar 2011: Chapter 5 - Hydropower, IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation, 2011 (link / cached copy)

Atalson 2015: Energy Return on Investment of Hydroelectric Power Generation Calculated Using a Standardised Methodology, Preprint 2015 (link / cached copy)

DOE 2016: U.S. Department of Energy - Hydropower Vision, 2016 (link / cached copy)

Nuclear Power

Lenzen 2008: Life Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Energy: A Review, Energy Conversion and Management 49, 2178-99, 2008 (link)

My Excel spreadsheet re-analysis of Lenzen's table 13a data (link)

Barton 2008: Thorium EROEI, Nuclear Green Revolution Blog, 2008 (link / cached copy)

WNA 2017: World Nuclear Association - Energy Return on Investment, 2017 (link / cached copy)

SRSROCCO 2017: The Falling EROI Kills Westinghouse: 2 U.S. Nuclear Reactors Construction Halted, Investment Watch Blog 2017 (link / cached copy)

Sources cited in preceding article (none of which even mention EROI, much less supply supportive data):
      Ars Technica
      U.S. Energy Information Agency
      Reuters
      ThinkProgress

Solar Photovoltaic Power

Greenpeace 2011: Solar Generation 6 (link / cached copy) which identifies its EROI data source as being:

IEA WEO: International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook database (link / cached copy)

Raugei 2010: Dispelling the Misconception of Low-EROI Photovoltaics: Peak oil is here, let us not squander what is left, 7th Biennial International Workshop Advances in Energy Studies, 2010 (link / cached copy)

Raugei 2012: The Energy Return on Investment (EROI) of Photovoltaics: Methodology and Comparisons with Fossil fuel Cycles, Energy Policy 45, 575-582, 2012 (link)

Fthenakis 2012: How Long Does it Take for Photovoltaics To Produce the Energy Used?, Professional Engineer Magazine 2012 (link / cached copy)

Bhandari 2015: Energy Payback Time (EPBT) and Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI) of Solar Photovoltaic Systems: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 47, 133-41, 2015 (link)

Carbajales 2015: Energy Return on Investment (EROI) of Solar PV: An Attempt at Reconciliation, Proceedings of the IEEE 103, 995-99, 2015 (link / cached copy)

Louwen 2016: Re-Assessment of Net Energy Production and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Avoidance after 40 Years of Photovoltaics Development, Nature Communications, December 2016 (link / cached copy)

Solar Thermal Power

Larrain 2012: Net Energy Analysis for Concentrated Solar Power Plants in Northern Chile (link)

Trainer 2014: The Limits to Solar Thermal Electricity - and references therein (link)

Wind Power

White 1998: Net Energy Payback and CO2 Emissions from Wind-Generated Electricity in the Midwest (link / cached copy)

Cohen 2008: Technology Improvement Opportunities for Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of Energy Reduction, U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab, TP 500 41036, 2008 (link / cached copy)

Kubiszewski 2010: Meta-Analysis of Net Energy Return for Wind Power Systems, Renewable Energy 35, 218-25, 2010 (link)

Tegen 2010: 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review, U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab, TP 5000 52920, 2010 (link / cached copy)

Hand 2010: Wind Generation Technology Cost Modeling, U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab, talk 2010 (link / cached copy)

Lantz 2012: The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy, IEA Wind Task 26, U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab, 2012 (link / cached copy)

Hand2013: Wind Plant Cost of Energy: Past and Future, U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab, talk 2013 (link / cached copy)

AWEA 2013: Setting the Record Straight about Wind’s Lifecycle Emissions and Return on Energy Invested, American Wind Association Blog, 2013 (link / cached copy)